A man using an electronic cigarette exhales in Mayfield Heights, Ohio, Friday, Oct. 4, 2019. THE CANADIAN PRESS/AP-Tony Dejak

A man using an electronic cigarette exhales in Mayfield Heights, Ohio, Friday, Oct. 4, 2019. THE CANADIAN PRESS/AP-Tony Dejak

Teen developed ‘popcorn lung’ due to vaping: Ontario doctors

Boy went from being in perfect health to being on life support after just five months

A newly published article says an Ontario teenager’s brush with death due to a lung disease highlights exactly how little the medical community knows about the effects of vaping.

The article, published Thursday in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, was written by six doctors who treated the 17-year-old boy during a 47-day hospital stay.

They say the boy went from being in perfect health to being on life support after just five months of regularly using e-cigarettes.

The article outlines his hospitalization in early 2019, during which he spent time on life support and narrowly averted a double-lung transplant.

The doctors say his respiratory condition differed from the kinds typically seen in the growing number of confirmed vaping-related cases documented in the United States.

They say the teen’s condition resembled the sort of damage usually seen in factory workers forced to breathe in toxic chemicals often seen in products such as microwave popcorn, which are safe to ingest but not to inhale.

The doctors say the boy’s case offers further proof that vaping-related illnesses can take different forms, calling for more research to better understand a trend that’s already sounding alarm bells around the world.

“We know that vaping is often seen in a younger population,” said Dr. Simon Landman, a physician at the London Health Sciences Centre who was involved in the teen’s care. “We don’t want to see anybody sick, but it’s quite eye-opening when it’s very young people who have been previously healthy.”

READ MORE: B.C. to restrict nicotine content, bring in 20% tax on vaping products

Landman said the teen first started receiving medical attention when he arrived at his hometown hospital with a serious, persistent cough.

Over time, doctors learned the boy had been regularly vaping for the previous five months, often adding THC — an active ingredient in some cannabis products — to the fluid contained in most vaping devices.

Numerous medical professionals have warned that the fluid, which is often flavoured, contains chemicals whose properties are little understood once inhaled.

Landman said physicians eliminated a variety of potential causes for the teen’s illness, including infections and inflammatory conditions, before speculating his decline was likely tied to his vaping activity.

Landman said the teen’s respiratory condition did not improve once in hospital, leading him to be transferred to the London Health Sciences Centre. He continued to deteriorate over time, eventually being placed on a ventilator and ultimately a machine described as the most serious form of life support available to respiratory patients.

The teen was transferred to a lung transplant centre in Toronto, where Dr. Tereza Martinu said she and other colleagues took over his care.

Martinu said the boy’s condition differed from other pulmonary illnesses documented in the scant medical literature around vaping.

“The relatively classic presentation has been that of acute lung injury or something that looks a little bit more like pneumonia with whitening of the whole lung,” she said. “We did not see that in this patient at all.”

Martinu said the teen’s primary issue was inflammation throughout the small tubes that run throughout the lungs.

Previously documented cases of vaping-related illnesses, she said, typically involved damage to the sponge-like lung tissue known as alveoli. In this case, however, Martinu said the teen’s alveoli was relatively unaffected.

She said the boy also differed from past cases by having relatively high levels of oxygen in his body. The inflammation in his small airways, she said, left him unable to clear carbon dioxide from his bloodstream.

His condition resembled what medical professionals describe as “popcorn lung” due to its prevalence among factory workers producing microwave popcorn.

Their conditions are believed to be caused by regular inhalation of diacetyl, a butter-flavoured chemical deemed safe to ingest but not to breathe.

Diacetyl, researchers said, is present in several flavouring agents used in vaping devices.

READ MORE: New case of vaping-related illness in Quebec brings national total to 8

Martinu said the teen was facing the prospect of a double-lung transplant, which usually only allows recipients to survive for an average of five to six years after surgery. Fortunately, she said, he responded to intensive steroid treatment that helped reduce the inflammation, and was eventually discharged back to his home hospital. The teen’s hometown was not disclosed.

Landman said the teen has continued to recover, but has not regained full breathing function even months after he was allowed to return home. He said the long-term effects of vaping are one of the many areas in need of greater research.

Earlier this year Canada’s chief medical officers of health issued a statement warning that vaping among youth had spiked alarmingly, and Canadian provinces including British Columbia and Prince Edward Island are exploring legislation to limit youth access to e-cigarettes.

American officials have begun recording fatalities and illnesses tied to vaping, with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported 42 deaths and 2,172 injuries as of this week.

But a move to ban flavoured e-cigarettes in that country has prompted strong pushback from lobbyists who insist fears about vaping are overblown.

Landman disagrees, saying the Ontario teen’s story offers a powerful cautionary tale.

“Avoid it if you can, he said. “We’re still trying to find the full long-term consequences, but it doesn’t appear to be safe at this time.”

Michelle McQuigge, The Canadian Press


Like us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter.

Get local stories you won't find anywhere else right to your inbox.
Sign up here

Just Posted

Langley-Aldergrove MP Tako van Popta will be at a ceremony marking 70 years since Canadian soldiers fought at the Battle of Kapyong, held at the Gapyeong Memorial in Langley’s Derek Doubleday Arboretum on Friday, April 16. (Special to the Langley Advance Times)
Langley battle memorial marks 70 years since pivotal clash in Korean War

The Gapyeong Memorial will host a small, private ceremony this Friday

Prince George Cougars triumph over the Langley-based Vancouver Giants Monday night, by the score of 4-1. That follows a similar defeat on Saturday by the same team. (Cougar’s Allen Douglas/Special to Black Press Media)
Vancouver Giants fall in 4-1 loss to Prince George

WHL hockey team goes up against Victoria in Kamloops on Thursday

COVID-19 virus (file photo).
COVID cases recorded at 5 Langley schools

14 schools remain on Fraser Health exposure list

Trinity Western University’s Student Association organized a celebration parade for graduating students Saturday, April 10, 2021. (Trinity Western University/Special to the Langley Advance Times)
University student association hosts grad parade at Langley campus

Students honoured with special Saturday event

Seven-year-old Aaliyah Rosa was found dead in an apartment in Langley in July, 2018. (Langley Advance Times files)
Judge to rule on final witness in Langley child murder trial

The trial of KerryAnn Lewis has lasted far longer than expected

Restaurant patrons enjoy the weather on a patio in Vancouver, B.C., Monday, April 5, 2021. The province has restricted indoor dining at all restaurants in B.C. due to a spike in COVID-19 numbers. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Jonathan Hayward
B.C.’s COVID-19 indoor dining, drinking ban extending into May

Restaurant association says patio rules to be clarified

In a 2019 photograph, Yin Yin Din held a picture of her brother Kyaw Naing Din, 54, and her late father Hla Din who passed away in 2014, during a trip to Victoria. (The News files)
Family of B.C. man killed by cop appeals to Attorney General for help

The Din family want B.C. Attorney General David Eby to forward their case to Crown

B.C. Premier John Horgan speaks at the B.C. legislature. (B.C. government)
Tougher COVID-19 restrictions in B.C., including travel, still ‘on the table’: Horgan

John Horgan says travel restrictions will be discussed Wednesday by the provincial cabinet

Protesters occupied a road leading to Fairy Creek Watershed near Port Renfrew. (Submitted photo)
B.C. First Nation says logging activist interference not welcome at Fairy Creek

Vancouver Island’s Pacheedaht concerned about increasing polarization over forestry activities

Cannabis bought in British Columbia (Ashley Wadhwani/Black Press Media)
Is it time to start thinking about greener ways to package cannabis?

Packaging suppliers are still figuring eco-friendly and affordable packaging options that fit the mandates of Cannabis Regulations

Flow Academy is not accepting membership applications from anybody who has received a dose of the vaccine, according to a password-protected membership application form. (Submitted image)
B.C. martial arts gym refusing patrons who have been vaccinated, wear masks

Interior Health has already issued a ticket to Flow Academy for non-compliance with public health orders

Of 46 arrests made between March 16 and 19 at Metrotown mall in Burnaby, 27 suspected shoplifters are now facing charges. (Twitter/Burnaby RCMP)
RCMP arrest 46 people in 4 days during Metrotown shoplifting crackdown

$4,800 in stolen merchandise was recovered and returned to businesses inside of the mall

Kao Macaulay has been charged in relation to a home break-in on March 30 in Abbotsford in which five kittens were stolen. (Facebook photo)
‘Prolific offender’ charged with theft of 5 newborn kittens in Abbotsford

Kao Macaulay, 23, is accused of breaking into home on March 30

Sheila Malcolmson, B.C.’s minister of mental health and addictions (Screen shot)
Minister of mental health tells Surrey audience COVID-19 ‘has made everything worse’

More than 23,000 people in B.C. are receiving medication to treat opioid addiction

Most Read